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Since Yeshua is the Messiah, then believing in Him is the most Jewish. Faith in Yeshua is kosher, no matter what men may say. Skip to main content. Email to friends Share on Facebook - opens in a new window or tab Share on Twitter - opens in a new window or tab Share on Pinterest - opens in a new window or tab. Add to watch list. Similar sponsored items.

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Rabbinic Authority Versus the Historical Record

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See the seller's listing for full details. See all condition definitions — opens in a new window or tab Read more about the condition. About this product. See photos for table of contents It is not easy to overestimate the significance of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. Most people assume that Yeshua Jesus has nothing to do with being kosher, but that's not true. He was circumcised on the eighth day. He was a rabbi who did unparalleled miracles that brought great blessing to the nation of Israel.

He taught that He fulfilled, not set aside, the Torah.

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Even though He died years ago, Yeshua was raised from the dead; He returned to life and overcame death! He is the Messiah of Israel and the Savior of the world. He is the only one who can make us kosher clean, fit, proper in God's sight because He is completely kosher in the eyes of God. He alone is the one who can enable both Jews and Gentiles to have a kosher relationship with God, and with one another. Only Yeshua can give genuine peace and joy in this life, and everlasting life in the world to come.

Yeshua is able to make us kosher because He fulfills the ancient Biblical prophecies about the Messiah, and because He came back to life after He died. Yeshua has been! Yeshua has become the most influential figure in the history of mankind. He is the most famous Jew who ever lived: more famous than Abraham, more famous than Moses or King David, more famous than Freud or Einstein.

Because of Yeshua, the Jewish Bible has become the religious and spiritual heritage of the whole world. The love He has inspired, the comfort He has given, the good He has engendered, the hope and joy He has kindled are unequalled in human history. The probability of one person fulfilling all these prophecies by mere chance is infinitesimally small. There is only one rational conclusion: Yeshua is the Jewish Messiah! Both Jewish and Roman authorities admitted that His tomb was empty see Matthew All that the authorities who were hostile to Yeshua would have had to do to crush the Messianic movement in its infancy, would have been to produce Yeshua's body.

There is the evidence of transformed lives: Yeshua appeared to a wide variety of Jewish people, under varying conditions, in varying numbers, under varying circumstances. He appeared to Miriam John , to some other women Matthew 10 , to Simon Peter Luke , to two on the road to Emmaus Luke , to ten of the Apostles Luke , to all eleven Apostles eight days later John , then to seven by the lake of Galilee John Yeshua also appeared to five hundred people at once, most of whom were alive and could verify the event when the New Testament was written 1 Corinthians ! Yeshua appeared to His brother Ya'akov James who became the leader of the Jerusalem Congregation 1 Corinthians , and to rabbi Saul of Tarsus, who became better known as the Apostle Paul Acts Only Yeshua's resurrection could have transformed His disciples from a frightened, dispirited group into a fearless band that changed the course of world history within a generation.

Only Yeshua's resurrection could have transformed once skeptical family members like Ya'akov James into His most ardent followers. Only Yeshua's resurrection could have transformed someone like Saul of Tarsus, who went from being the most zealous opponent into the greatest proponent of Yeshua that the world has ever seen. Since the first century there have been millions of people who have claimed to have encountered the resurrected Yeshua, including some of the greatest thinkers, philosophers and scientists.

Only one explanation makes sense - Yeshua's resurrection. Yeshua's resurrection proves that He is the Messiah, since God would never allow a liar, deceiver, or false Messiah to be resurrected. It sets genuine Christianity and Messianic Judaism apart from all other religions and ideologies. Mohammed is still in his grave. Only Yeshua has overcome death. Yeshua's resurrection is God's seal of approval on who Yeshua is and everything that Yeshua did. As a result, we ought to pay attention to everything about Him and listen to every word He ever uttered.

You can trust Him and His statements more than any other human being's.

Justice and Mercy Meet in Grace: A Review of the Two Powers in Heaven

Yeshua once said to a Jewish woman named Martha: "I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in Me shall live even if he dies, and everyone who lives and believes in Me shall never die. Yeshua's resurrection is meant to give us hope that we can overcome death. If you are Jewish, God made you a Jew and no one can ever change that. Since Yeshua is the Messiah, then believing in Him is the most Jewish thing that you could do. Faith in Yeshua is kosher, no matter what men may say because truth is determined by God - not by a majority vote. Postage and packaging. This item will post to Germany , but the seller hasn't specified postage options.

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Nor because I am a wealthy man; for there are many more wealthy than I. The people of the south know Akiba; but whence should the people of Galilee know him? The men are acquainted with him; but how shall the women and children I see here be said to be acquainted with him? Still I know that your reward shall be great, for ye have given yourselves the trouble to come simply in order to do honor to the Torah and to fulfil a religious duty". Modesty is a favorite theme with Akiba, and he reverts to it again and again.

Schechter, xi. Another of his sayings, quoted also in the name of Ben 'Azzai Lev. Though so modest, yet when an important matter and not a merely personal one was concerned Akiba could not be cowed by the greatest, as is evidenced by his attitude toward the patriarch Gamaliel II. Convinced of the necessity of a central authority for Judaism, Akiba became a devoted adherent and friend of Gamaliel, who aimed at constituting the patriarch the true spiritual chief of the Jews R. But Akiba was just as firmly convinced that the power of the patriarch must be limited both by the written and the oral law, the interpretation of which lay in the hands of the learned; and he was accordingly brave enough to act in ritual matters in Gamaliel's own house contrary to the decisions of Gamaliel himself Tosef.

Concerning Akiba's other personal excellences, such as benevolence, and kindness toward the sick and needy, see Ned. In this connection it may be mentioned that Akiba filled the office of an overseer of the poor Ma'as.

Sages and Scholars

Eminent as Akiba was by his magnanimity and moral worthiness, he was still more so by his intellectual capacity, by which he secured an enduring influence upon his contemporaries and upon posterity. In the first place, Akiba was the one who definitely fixed the canon of the Old Testament books. He protested strongly against the canonicity of certain of the Apocrypha, Ecclesiasticus, for instance Sanh. He has, however, no objection to the private reading of the Apocrypha, as is evident from the fact that he himself makes frequent use of Ecclesiasticus Bacher, "Ag. Akiba stoutly defended, however, the canonicity of the Song of Songs, and Esther Yad.

To the same motive underlying his antagonism to the Apocrypha, namely, the desire to disarm Christians—especially Jewish Christians— who drew their "proofs" from the Apocrypha, must also be attributed his wish to emancipate the Jews of the Dispersion from the domination of the Septuagint, the errors and inaccuracies in which frequently distorted the true meaning of Scripture, and were even used as arguments against the Jews by the Christians.

Akiba probably also provided for a revised text of the Targums; certainly, for the essential base of the so-called Targum Onkelos, which in matters of Halakah reflects Akiba's opinions completely F. Rosenthal, "Bet Talmud," ii. Akiba's true genius, however, is shown in his work in the domain of the Halakah; both in his systematization of its traditional material and in its further development.

The condition of the Halakah, that is, of religious praxis, and indeed of Judaism in general, was a very precarious one at the turn of the first Christian century. The lack of any systematized collection of the accumulated Halakot rendered impossible any presentation of them in form suitable for practical purposes. Means for the theoretical study of the Halakah were also scant; both logic and exegesis—the two props of the Halakah—being differently conceived by the various ruling tannaim, and differently taught.

According to a tradition which has historical confirmation, it was Akiba who systematized and brought into methodic arrangement the Mishnah , or Halakah codex; the Midrash , or the exegesis of the Halakah; and the Halakot , For this meaning of Halakah, see especially Tosef. Juives," xxxviii. Migne, p. But at the same time it is fair to consider the Mishnah of Judah ha-Nasi called simply "the Mishnah" as derived from the school of Akiba; and the majority of halakic Midrashim now extant are also to be thus credited.

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Nehemiah, the Sifra from R. Judah, and the Sifre from R. Simon; but they all took Akiba for a model in their works and followed him" Sanh. Shim'oni, and a manuscript in Midrash ha-Gadol, edited for the first time by B. Koenigsberger, ; and the Sifre to Deuteronomy, the halakic portion of which belongs to Akiba's school. Admirable as is the systematization of the Halakah by Akiba, his hermeneutics and halakic exegesis— which form the foundation of all Talmudic learning—surpassed it.

The enormous difference between the Halakah before and after Akiba may be briefly described as follows: The old Halakah was, as its name indicates, the religious practice sanctioned as binding by tradition; to which were added extensions, and, in some cases, limitations, of the Torah, arrived at by strict logical deduction.

The opposition offered by the Sadducees—which became especially strenuous in the last century B. It might be thought that with the destruction of the Temple—which event made an end of Sadduceeism—the halakic Midrash would also have disappeared, seeing that the Halakah could now dispense with the Midrash. Buber, 39 b. Akiba made the accumulated treasure of the oral law—which until his time was only a subject of knowledge, and not a science—an inexhaustible mine from which, by the means he provided, new treasures might be continually extracted.

If the older Halakah is to be considered as the product of the internal struggle between Phariseeism and Sadduceeism, the Halakah of Akiba must be conceived as the result of an external contest between Judaism on the one hand and Hellenism and Hellenistic Christianity on the other. Akiba no doubt perceived that the intellectual bond uniting the Jews—far from being allowed to disappear with the destruction of the Jewish state —must be made to draw them closer together than before.

Rabbi Akiba's Messiah

He pondered also the nature of that bond. The Bible could never again fill the place alone; for the Christians also regarded it as a divine revelation.

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Still less could dogma serve the purpose, for dogmas were always repellent to rabbinical Judaism, whose very essence is development and the susceptibility to development. Mention has already been made of the fact that Akiba was the creator of a rabbinical Bible version elaborated with the aid of his pupil, Aquila, and designed to become the common property of all Jews; thus Judaizing the Bible, as it were, in opposition to the Christians. But this was not sufficient to obviate all threatening danger. It was to be feared that the Jews, by their facility in accommodating themselves to surrounding circumstances—even then a marked characteristic—might become entangled in the net of Grecian philosophy, and even in that of Gnosticism.

The example of his colleagues and friends, Elisha ben Abuyah, Ben 'Azzai , and Ben Zoma strengthened him still more in his conviction of the necessity of providing some counterpoise to the intellectual influence of the non-Jewish world. As the fundamental principle of his system, Akiba enunciates his conviction that the mode of expression used by the Torah is quite different from that of every other book. In the language of the Torah nothing is mere form; everything is essence. It has nothing superfluous; not a word, not a syllable, not even a letter.

Every peculiarity of diction, every particle, every sign, is to be considered as of higher importance, as having a wider relation and as being of deeper meaning than it seems to have. Like Philo see Siegfried, "Philo," p. He thus gave the Jewish mind not only a new field for its own employment, but, convinced both of the unchangeableness of Holy Scripture and of the necessity for development in Judaism, he succeeded in reconciling these two apparently hopeless opposites by means of his remarkable method.

The following two illustrations will serve to make this clear: 1 The high conception of woman's dignity, which Akiba shared in common with most other Pharisees, induced him to abolish the Oriental custom that banished women at certain periods from all social intercourse. Akiba therefore teaches, in opposition to the old Halakah, that the sale of a daughter under age by her father conveys to her purchaser no legal title to marriage with her, but, on the contrary, carries with it the duty to keep the female slave until she is of age, and then to marry her Mek.

How Akiba endeavors to substantiate this from the Hebrew text is shown by Geiger "Urschrift," p. How little he cared for the letter of the Law whenever he conceives it to be antagonistic to the spirit of Judaism, is shown by his attitude toward the Samaritans. He considered friendly intercourse with these semi-Jews as desirable on political as well as on religious grounds; and he permitted—in opposition to tradition—not only eating their bread Sheb.

This is quite remarkable, seeing that in matrimonial legislation he went so far as to declare every forbidden union as absolutely void Yeb. For similar reasons Akiba comes near abolishing the Biblical ordinance of Kilaim; nearly every chapter in the treatise of that name contains a mitigation by Akiba. Love for the Holy Land, which he as a genuine nationalist frequently and warmly expressed see Ab. These examples will suffice to justify the opinion that Akiba was the man to whom Judaism owes preeminently its activity and its capacity for development.

Goethe's saying, that "in self-restraint is the master shown," is contradicted by Akiba, who, though diametrically opposed to all philosophical speculation, is nevertheless the only tanna to whom we can attribute something like a religious philosophy. This serves at least to show how strong in later ages was the recollection of Akiba's philosophical speculation see Elisha b. Akiba's utterances Abot, iii. They run: "How favored is man, for he was created after an image; as Scripture says, 'for in an image, Elohim made man'" Gen.

Strict monotheist that Akiba was, he protested against any comparison of God with the angels, and declared the traditional interpretation of Gen. It is quite instructive to read how a contemporary of Akiba, Justin Martyr, calls the old interpretation —thus objected to by Akiba—a "Jewish heretical one" "Dial. In his earnest endeavors to insist as strongly as possible upon the incomparable nature of God, Akiba indeed lowers the angels somewhat to the realms of mortals, and, alluding to Ps. This view of Akiba's, in spite of the energetic protests of his colleague Ishmael, became the one generally accepted by his contemporaries, as Justin Martyr, l.

He insists that not even the angels can see God's glory; for he interprets the expression in Ex. This insistence is in opposition to the Christian doctrine of the sinfulness and depravity of man, and apparently controverts his view of divine predestination. But Akiba's opposition to this genetically Jewish doctrine is probably directed mainly against its Christian correlative, the doctrine of the grace of God contingent upon faith in Christ, and baptism.

Referring to this, Akiba says, "Happy are ye, O Israelites, that ye purify yourselves through your heavenly Father, as it is said Jer. This is a play on the Hebrew word "hope" and "bath". But he is far from representing justice as the only attribute of God: in agreement with the ancient Palestinian theology of the "the attribute of justice" and "the attribute of mercy" Gen.

Heres," 34 Mangey, i. The idea of justice, however, so strongly dominates Akiba's system that he will not allow God's grace and kindness to be understood as arbitrary. Hence his maxim, referred to above, "God rules the world in mercy, but according to the preponderance of good or bad in human acts. As to the question concerning the frequent sufferings of the pious and the prosperity of the wicked —truly a burning one in Akiba's time—this is answered by the explanation that the pious are punished in this life for their few sins, in order that in the next they may receive only reward; while the wicked obtain in this world all the recompense for the little good they have done, and in the next world will receive only punishment for their misdeeds Gen.

Buber, ix. Consistent as Akiba always was, his ethics and his views of justice were only the strict consequences of his philosophical system. Justice as an attribute of God must also be exemplary for man. From his views as to the relation between God and man he deduces the inference that he who sheds the blood of a fellow man is to be considered as committing the crime against the divine archetype of man Gen.


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He therefore recognizes as the chief and greatest principle of Judaism the command, "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" Lev. He does not, indeed, maintain thereby that the execution of this command is equivalent to the performance of the whole Law; and in one of his polemic interpretations of Scripture he protests strongly against the contrary opinion of the Christians, according to whom Judaism is "simply morality" Mek. For, in spite of his philosophy, Akiba was an extremely strict and national Jew. His doctrine concerning the Messiah was the realistic and thoroughly Jewish one, as his declaration that Bar Kokba was the Messiah shows.

He accordingly limited the Messianic age to forty years, as being within the scope of a man's life—similar to the reigns of David and Solomon—against the usual conception of a millennium Midr. A distinction is, however, to be made between the Messianic age and the future world. This latter will come after the destruction of this world, lasting for 1, years R. To the future world all Israel will be admitted, with the exception of the generation of the Wilderness and the Ten Tribes Sanh.

But even this future world is painted by Akiba in colors selected by his nationalist inclinations; for he makes Messiah whom, according to Ezek. A man like Akiba would naturally be the subject of many legends see Akiba ben Joseph in Legend. The following two examples indicate in what light the personality of this great teacher appeared to later generations.

Upon his inquiry as to what these might be for, he received the answer, 'There will come a man, named Akiba ben Joseph, who will deduce Halakot from every little curve and crown of the letters of the Law. This story gives in naive style a picture of Akiba's activity as the father of Talmudical Judaism. The following account of his martyrdom is on a somewhat higher plane and contains a proper appreciation of his principles: When Rufus—"Tyrannus Rufus," as he is called in Jewish sources—who was the pliant tool of Hadrian's vengeance, condemned the venerable Akiba to the hand of the executioner, it was just the time to recite the "Shema'.

Pure monotheism was for Akiba the essence of Judaism: he lived, worked, and died for it. See also Akiba ben Jospeh in Legend. Akiba, who sprang from the ranks of the "plain people," loved the people; and they testified their admiration of his extraordinary accomplishments in the language of the people—in legend.